The nose and the body configuration
There have been studied the distribution of the factions that are associated with the main races according to their possible adaptive value (or contribution to the reproductive success) The results are far away from being conclusive, but some of them are interesting suggestion that allow us to relate some characteristic of the races with temperature, moisture, and other climatologic factors. Long European nose might be the result of the need to elevate the cold and humid air, to the corporal temperature, before it got the lounges. The clear and dumpy nose that appears in the Eskimo can be contemplated as other kind of adaptation to the cold weather. The spherical forms of the noses represent the maximum of the corporal mass with the minimum of surface, what puts in relation a maximum of heat production with a maximum of conservation of it.
The color of the skin
Many of the human beings are not too clear and not to dark, they are mostly half black and half white. The extremely clear skin of the North Europeans and their descendants and the very black skin of the center Africans and their descendants are special adaptations. The ancestors of dark skin might have been common for white and blacks between 15.000 and 10.000 years ago. Human skin has its own color because of the well known particles called “melanin” the same
substance that allows the alligators the change their color and the one that produces the ink in the octopus. In humans, the primary function of melanin is to protect the superior layers of the skin, in order to avoid the damage of the length of the ultraviolet rays of the sun that penetrates the atmosphere. This radiation makes critic problems to our specie, because we don’t have a thick coat of hair that is used as a sunscreen in almost all the mammals.
The fact that we don’t have the same hair as mammals has some advantage: it allows the sweat glandules to cool our body by the evaporation, which gives our specie the unique skill of chasing and running behind the fast predator animals, in long distances during the hot weather of noon. But having no hair has it prices: it makes us to be exposing to 2 different and dangerous radiations: the ordinary sunburn with blisters, rashes and the risk of getting infections, and the skin cancers, including melanoma, If the exposure to the solar radiation hadn’t more than malign effects, natural selection had produced that all humankind would have been black. BUT the sunrays are not a direct threat to us. When the rays fall over the skin, the sunlight converts a fatty substance of the skin, into Vitamin D.
The blood takes Vitamin D from the skin into the intestines, where it has a vital role in the absorption of Calcium.
As Vitamin D, can be get from few foods – mainly oils and liver of fishes – the populations from the interior of Europe depend of the sun rays and their own skin in order to get this Vitamin. That’s why the particular color of the skin of a population represents a point of equilibrium between the dangers of the excessive solar radiation and the danger of the lack of radiation at all: the sunburn, cancer and melanomas in one side and bone dysfunctions, deformation in the spine in the other side. Is this equilibrium the one that explains, mainly, the preponderance of people with dark skin in the world and the general tendency of the color of the skin to be darker in the equatorial areas and much lighter in the people who live in higher latitudes? In the medium latitudes the strategy of the skin to change with the seasons keeps on morphing.
Mediterranean agriculturist populations, who established in the North of Europe approximately 6.000 years ago, were possibly threatened by diseases that affected bones, because of their lack of Calcium, which is gotten by the sunrays. When they emigrate to the north, they had to cover with big clothes to protect themselves from the long winters, the coldness and the low clouds of the area. In contradiction with the Mesolithic group of persons, or the skimo, European people, didn’t get the Vitamin D from their agriculture or fabrication of milk, because Vitamin D, is mainly gotten from the oil of fishes. White skinned individual who were not sun tanned could use the weaker doses of sunlight in order to get as much Vitamin D, as they could, and they were also affected by the natural selection. During the gelid winters only a small piece of skin was able to get the sun rays, favoring that way, the survival of the European individuals, with pink translucid spots in the chicks, one of the main characteristic that north Europeans still have!
The process of the White groups in Europe of establishing in an area that would provoke them death, or dysfunctions in their bones because of the lack of sun rays and at the same time of Vitamin D, was long and difficult. Why? Because as a difference with the groups that lived in Africa, the White groups of natives didn’t have the same possibility of getting sunlight and Vitamin D to survive, and to keep the Calcium in their bones and in their skeletons. What is really amazing is that those light skinned tribes, didn’t decided just to die, they realized that with their agriculture and animals who gave milk, they would survive, because animals which produce milk, are a great source of Calcium and not only this element, but the sugar of the milk – the lactose – facilitates the absorption of Calcium.
In order to receive and absorb the anti – rickets properties of the milk, White people had to overcome another genetic obstacle. The emigrants to the North areas of Europe had to develop the skill of digest the lactose in the adult age, just like in the childhood and they couldn’t! So, as we know, the lack of lactose conduces in general to digestive problems, an adverse condition to so needed absorption of calcium. In an incredible survival and strong develop of their internal system,
White Europeans instead of disappearing, actually could get enough lactose and Calcium. That’s why it’s not accidental that Europeans from the North have the characteristic of white skin and an unusual skill to digest enormous quantities of liquid and fresh milk.
White Europeans knew that they couldn’t get the Vitamin D, by sun tanning their skins like Africans or Equatorial tribes did, because if they exposed their skin brief moments of sun that they had in their area, they would die frozen in few hours later, because their bodies weren’t used to the change of temperatures. So, keeping their enormous kilos of clothes, they just decided to get the few amounts of sun rays in their faces – which explain the pink spots in the cheeks of many of the modern north Europeans -. The also realized that they could survive from the deformation of their bones because of the lack of Vitamin D provoked at the same time by the lack of sunlight, receiving the milk that their animals got. As in the first time they couldn’t absorb the lactose because their bodies and digestive system wasn’t used to it, but they just changed their system and were able to get all the lactose and the Calcium and at the same time, the Vitamin D that they
needed to survive.
Many tribes in the world have disappeared because of minimum obstacles, even when they were already “modern” civilizations. But White tribes from Europe were alone and not very modern, in terms of developing a war system, or important religious structure, as their equals in other places of the world. They had to support winters that no human being would resist in this time. But they had a spirit of survival, and without sun, without calcium, their bodies and genetic structures had such an extreme strength and “perfection” that they could evolve into what they are now, without disappearing in the hostile snow of North Europe.